Wildlife Research Group, Cambridge University
Member of IUCN Species Survival Commission specialist group
1 December 2002
1. The Leuser Ecosystem
The Leuser Ecosystem Region is one of the most important conservation areas on earth. It contains over twenty-five thousand of the known species on earth in a biodiversity hot spot in northern Sumatra. It contains 4.2% of all the known bird species on the planet. It also contains 2.6% of all the known species of mammals on earth. This includes the last remaining viable populations of the Sumatran orang-utan (Pongo abelii), Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) and Sumatran elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus), as well as the largest population of the most critically endangered large mammal on earth, the Sumatran rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis).
Every new taxonomy survey has found more new species. When compared with estimates of the total predicted number of unrecorded species on earth, the Leuser Ecosystem Region is estimated to contain over 100,000 species in total (including, adjacent to the mainland rain-forests of the Leuser Ecosystem, a 12 km stretch off the east-coast mangrove forests and the west-coast swamps, that harbour many species of sea fish, corals, whales, and dolphins).
Efforts are being made to propose the Leuser Ecosystem for nomination as a natural World Heritage Site. It is recognised as one of the top twenty-five critical ecosystems in the world. It is the only place on earth where representatives of the major characters of Rudyard Kipling’s The Jungle Book can be found in the one area: orang-utans, bears, tigers, elephants, melanic form of tree-climbing (clouded) leopard, pythons, monkeys (Thomas langur, silver langur, long-tailed macaque, pig-tailed macaque), pack living canines (Asian wild dogs), large birds of prey (black eagle, crested serpent eagle, white-bellied sea-eagle), strangling fig trees, together in their rain-forest habitat with thousands of species of plants (more than 4,500 of the plants of the West Indo-Malayan Realm), and no forest-dwelling tribal people living inside the forests. Some of the extra species not in the Walt Disney classic include: siamang and lar gibbons (the latter being considered to have one of the most beautifully melancholic songs in the world), hairy rhinoceros, flying squirrels, flying lemurs, bats (at least 37 species, including flying foxes, Pteropus vampyrus), porcupines, civets, small and large deer, slow loris (nocturnal prosimian primates), scaly pangolins, crocodiles, monitor lizards, nine species of hornbills, the Great Argus, luminescent toadstool fungi, pitcher plants, several species of the world’s largest flower (Rafflesia spp), and the world’s tallest flower (Amorphophallus).
The Leuser Ecosystem is globally important for bird conservation, containing more than 80% of Sumatra’s resident breeding species, with one of the world’s longest area-bird lists, and all the IUCN “Red Data Book” bird species listed for Sumatra.
This rich diversity of bird species includes: bee-eaters, flycatchers, flowerpeckers, honeyguides, kingfishers, spiderhunters, woodpeckers, barbets, bablers, broadbills, bulbuls, drongos, hornbills, magpies, minvets, mynas, orioles, robins, shamas, shrikes, swallows, swifts, thrushes, treepies, trogons, warblers, weavers, whistlers, white-eyes, leafbirds, sunbirds, tailorbirds, fantails, forktails, needletails, wagtails, doves, pigeons, quails, partridges, pheasants, cuckoos, parakeets, parrots, bitterns, herons, finfoots, ducks, snipes, sandpipers, waders, falcons, hawks, nightjars, owls, serpent eagles, hawk eagles, fish eagles, sea eagles, and many more.
Although the Leuser Ecosystem was only created in 1995, its spectacular fauna and flora has been the subject of many international films that have been shown to over a hundred million viewers throughout the world. The BBC celebrated the new millenium with a special documentary on the community of orang-utans in their rain-forest habitat at Ketambe in the Leuser Ecosystem, South-east Aceh. Other programmes shown throughout the world have included Leuser’s orang-utans that inhabit the Singkil-Trumon and Kluet swamp forests on the west coast of Aceh. These are the only known orang-utans in the world that have developed a sophisticated tool-using culture.
The Leuser Ecosystem covers some 26,000 sq. km, or 2.6 million hectares, of tropical rain-forest in northern Sumatra, Indonesia - an area almost as large as Belgium. It is the most complete and representative conservation area in the West Indo-Malayan Realm (Malesia), thereby making it of unparalleled conservation importance on a global scale. It is fringed by two major volcanic calderas, and contains a volcanic plateau, a rift valley, four spectacular volcanoes, two lakes, 13 major river systems, as well as numerous hot springs and fumaroles, and many 3,000m+ mountain peaks, including Mount Leuser that rises to 3,455m. The main vegetation types comprise coastal beach forest, swamp forests, lowland dry forest, riparian forest, hill dipterocarp forest, sub-montane forest, and alpine meadows.
About 80% of the Ecosystem is located in the province of Aceh, the remaining 20% occurring in the province of North Sumatra. The boundaries in Aceh were gazetted in 2001, whilst those in North Sumatra were gazetted in 2002. Excluding the west-coast swamp forests, and the lowland Sikundur Wildlife Reserve, most of the Leuser Ecosystem is situated on slopes of 40% or more, that should by law become protection forest. The designated Mount Leuser National Park is situated inside the Leuser Ecosystem, and comrises about one third of the total size of the Ecosystem. Except Sikundur, most of the National Park is high mountains, and is not large enough to contain viable populations of three of the endangered large mammals – the Sumatran tiger, Sumatran elephant, and Sumatran orang-utan.
2. Benefits of the Leuser Ecosystem to local communities
The Leuser Ecosystem acts as a life-support system for more than two million indigenous people that rely on the ecological services provided by an intact ecosystem. The primary service is fresh water required to sustain the livelihoods of local people that live around the ecosystem. There are thirteen major river systems arising in the ecosystem. The water-catchment area of just one of these rivers, the left branch of the Simpang Kiri /Alas River, has a rainfall catchment of 20 billion cubic meters of water per year. The forests of the Leuser Ecosystem act like a sponge to soak up this water and spread out its release downstream more evenly across the months. When undisturbed, they dampen out the peaks and troughs, thereby preventing flash floods and regulating the water supply to prevent prolonged droughts. They sustain the local rice-growing cultures by ensuring a reliable source of fresh water for drinking, bathing, transportation, and supplying the fisheries and agricultural sector. The Ecosystem also provides non-timber forest products such as rattan and bamboo, which are harvested by local communities.
Due to the prolonged conflict in Aceh, revenues for local communities from the nature tourism industry have been almost completely wiped out. It will take many years and substantial investment for the sector to develop to its full potential.
3. The conflict in Aceh
Aceh is the most north-westerly province in the Republic of Indonesia. Since 1976, the Free Aceh Movement (GAM, Gerakan Aceh Merdeka) has been fighting for complete independence from Indonesia. To put down the separatists, the Indonesian military declared Aceh a special Military Operation Area (DOM, Daerah Operasi Militar) for ten years from 1989 until 1998, when former President Soeharto stepped down. Since then the conflict between GAM and the Indonesian army has escalated, with up to 1,000 people being killed per year in recent years. Killings go on almost every day in the province. Most of the victims have been innocent civilians killed by unknown armed assassins (OTK, orang tak kanal) who assassinate targets from motor-bikes and regularly go into the homes of villagers to shoot the father in front of his family. Reports estimate that over 10,000 people have been killed as a result of the conflict.
Since 2000, the Swiss-based Henry Dunant Centre has been involved as a neutral third party helping the warring sides to come to the negotiating table to broker a peace deal. All cease-fire agreements prior to December 2002 have failed. A new comprehensive peace deal was expected to be signed on December 9th 2002. The basis for this agreement was to be the adoption of a special autonomy package for Aceh that gave the province a far greater proportion of its oil, gas, mineral, and forest resources. Under the special autonomy law of 2001, the province changed its name to Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (‘House of Peace’ Aceh Country) and was allowed to introduce islamic syariah law.
4. Corruption and illegal logging in Aceh
Since 1998, independent studies have consistently ranked Indonesia as one of the most corrupt countries in South-east Asia. A leaked internal World Bank report in 1997 acknowledged that about 30% of all its loans were siphoned off during the Soeharto period by corrupt officials. In relation to the Bank’s total loans to Indonesia, this would have amounted to over US $10 billion. In 2002, a University of Indonesia study reported that Aceh was the most corrupt province in Indonesia. Independent international observers reported in early 2002 that there was little incentive for the warring parties to end the conflict because too much money was at stake. The ‘Aceh problem’ had just become a major source of projects to many parties, so that development support for Aceh was being wasted through an enormous leakage of funds from government projects that had little benefit to the people.
Recent reports have estimated that the military derives almost 70% of its operational revenue from non-budgetary sources, especially illegal logging, drugs, gambling and other protection rackets, as well as legal business revenues deriving from past policies allowing army foundations to help fund army welfare institutions. After the separation of the Indonesian national police from the army in 2000, a large number of violent conflicts have broken out between the army and police, mainly related to controlling access to protection rackets. In one of the latest incidents in Binjai, North Sumatra, an army battalion attacked the district police headquarters in September 2002, laying the town to siege. Eight police officers, a soldier and three civilians were killed, whilst one ton of marijuana and 45 prisoners went missing. The army said the incident revolved around the refusal by the police to release a colleague of one of the soldiers being held for possessing drugs. Although all enforcement agencies throughout the world have such problems, the revenue values from illegal logging are far greater, and hence the protection incentive for rouge elements of enforcement agencies are greater too.
On 28th October 2000 in South-east Aceh, soldiers shot two police officers in Kutacane who refused to release a truck used in illegal logging operations; one of the police officers died. The soldiers were under the command of a district military commander who was well known locally to operate an illegal saw-mill inside the Mount Leuser National Park. After an investigation, the district police commander was transferred from his post.
Between 1998-2002, after Soeharto’s old restrictions on press freedom were lifted, reports of the involvement of illegal logging around Leuser by rogue members of the military, police, local government officials and political figures were exposed weekly. In one such incident, the regional Bukit Barisan military command in Medan operated a foundation that helped build a road inside the National Park in Langkat that was used for illegal logging operations. The permit was issued by the Head of the National Park.
5. Proposed road network ‘Ladia Galaska’
The provincial and local governments in Aceh have proposed a road system to open up the forests of Leuser from the west coast by the Indian Ocean (Lautan Hindia=Ladia) through the main centres of two indigenous peoples’ groups, the Gayo and Alas (=Galas), to the east coast by the Malacca Straits (Selat Malaka=ka), known locally by the abbreviation Ladia Galaska.
The main Ladia Galaska road network proposal, together with related road projects, cuts through the Leuser Ecosystem in at least nine places. It ignores all legal environmental impact assessments (EIA’s), and cuts through ‘protection forests’ (Hutan Lindung – generally, non-conservation forests that have an average slope of 40% or more), as well as conservation forests (including the designated Mount Leuser National Park).
The Leuser Management Unit (the technical management body of the Leuser Development Programme, which is a joint EC-GoI initiative to conserve the Leuser Ecosystem) has been lobbying for over a year on technical grounds against the roads, using sophisticated GIS analyses. In particular, only three of the nine proposed roads have had environmental impact assessments (EIA’s) carried out, and even these three EIA’s violated the laws. A team from University of Indonesia that approved these is suspected of collusion with members of the Ministry of Environment, and is now being sued by local NGO’s.
Proponents of the road projects argue they are just upgrading existing roads, most of which originated as logging roads. Nevertheless, legally, all these roads require EIA’s.
To get round the technical arguments, the local governments and provincial governments have now abandoned the legal requirements for EIA’s, and have pressurised the central government to release funds for the roads as part of the solution to the Aceh problem. To help their case, they are calling for the dissolution of the LMU on the grounds that it is not helping the people of Aceh who (they argue) need these roads for their development.
Alternative solutions proposed by the LMU, including a road system going through mainstream development areas in East Aceh that would benefit more people have been rejected. The main reason for this appears to be that most of the proponents of Ladia Galaska are all linked to logging businesses, and the alternative road schemes link up villages in non-forest areas.
So the roads are now a political issue, not a technical issue.
6. Destruction of Leuser Ecosystem by Ladia Galaska
The effect of Ladia Galaska can be predicted exactly because of precedents in Leuser. In 1982, USAID helped fund a road upgrading project that split the Mt Leuser National Park in two. Aerial photographs taken before and after clearly show that USAID helped facilitate uncontrolled illegal settlements along the road inside the National Park around Gumpang and Marpunga (districts of Gayo Lues and South-east Aceh). These local indigenous settlers were responsible for large-scale illegal encroachment, illegal logging, and poaching of endangered species.
There are many examples from Leuer of people being killed as a result of floods caused by destructive logging practices. The most recent occurred in western Aceh in November 2002, that also caused destruction of roads and main-highway bridges downstream, cutting the area off from the rest of Aceh (see also next section).
All the proposed roads lead to habitat fragmentation that is one of the primary threats to the viability of endangered species in Leuser. None of the EIA’s prepared for three of the nine roads took Population Viability and Habitat Analysis (PVHA) of endangered species of flora and fauna into account. These would give an indication of whether populations of key indicator endangered species will go extinct as a result of the proposed project. Thus, the local government concerned wantonly ignores the effects of the roads on the chances of extinction of species that are listed by IUCN as Critically Endangered, violating both their own national laws and international treaties.
7. Political support for Ladia Galaska
The main supporters of the Ladia Galaska road network through the Leuser Ecosystem are the current Governor of Aceh, Abdullah Puteh, and several regents (Bupati’s) and heads of local parliaments (DPRD), especially those for South-east Aceh, Gayo Lues, Central Aceh, and Nagan Raya – all indigenous people. These officials argue that Ladia Galaska is a road project to help solve the Aceh problem by increasing the speed of road transportation and freeing remote villages from isolation, thereby allowing poor rural areas access to markets and encouraging development. In addition, they have obtained support from the current Minister for Infrastructure Development, Minister of Forestry, and Minister for Environment, and the Deputy Co-ordinating Minister for Economy who also holds the position of Head of the Team for Ending the Conflict in Aceh.
The Governor of Aceh’s support for Ladia Galaska is so strong, that meetings were arranged in Jakarta on 26th November 2002 to pressure opponents of the road network exactly at a time when several tens of thousands of people from four regencies in western Aceh had evacuated their homes due to devastating flood damage. The damage was estimated at US $11.74 million (Jakarta Post, 28.11.2002). The floods in West Aceh, Nagan Raya,West Aceh Daya, and South Aceh, were all the result of destruction of the adjacent forests in the Leuser Ecosystem, the scale of which had been exacerbated by road networks that had opened up the area for logging operations on mountain slopes.
The massive destruction of public infrastructure that results from these road networks is not costed by the state in their calculations of weighing up the costs and benefits of Ladia Galaska because the damage is just viewed as another mega-project for which corrupt government officials can get rich from. Thus, donors are funding relief for the effects of forest destruction by corrupt government officials that are creating the causal mechanism.
8. NGO opposition to Ladia Galaska
Many local NGO’s are against the road network on the grounds that the road network will contribute no net benefit to solving the Aceh problem, but through massive corruption in Aceh, the wasted investment would result in lost opportunity costs for alternative developments that might have contributed positively to helping the majority of poor people. Instead, these NGO’s argue the Ladia Galaska road network only benefits the corrupt government officials that will siphon off large amounts of funds for their own benefits, and open up Leuser’s forests for massive illegal logging operations, that will eventually lead to encroachment, illegal settlements, and finally destruction of the greatest part of Leuser facilitated by the roads. Due to the unstable security situation, they suspect that the army will also be a major beneficiary of contracts for road construction, either directly through controlled companies, or indirectly through provision of security services, since no other contractors can operate in unsafe forest areas.
The Leuser Management Unit had been providing government agencies with technical objections to Ladia Galaska, especially relating to inadequacies or violations of the legal processes. In addition, the LMU has provided GIS analyses to government agencies and the results of an economic valuation of the Leuser Ecosystem by Caesar & van Beukering. This showed that over a thirty-year period, the total economic benefit from conserving the Leuser Ecosystem was far greater than an alternative policy of logging followed by converting as much as possible to plantations. In addition, the conversion policy only gave short-term benefits to the elite logging groups, whereas local communities gain far more economic benefits if the Ecosystem is conserved in both the short-term and long-term.
The recent approval of the road proposals, however, show that is no longer a technical issue, but purely a political issue.
An alliance of local NGO’s has been campaigning against Ladia Galaska. In the forefront had been SKEPHI (the Indonesian NGO’s Network for Forest Conservation), AMAN (the Alliance of Traditional Peoples of the Archipelago), and FORPAT. They have been joined by an alliance comprising PBHI (the Indonesian Legal Aid & Human Rights Association), Walhi Eknas (the Indonesian Forum for the Environment, National Executive), Walhi Aceh, Walhi Sumut, Forest Watch Indonesia, Sawit Watch, Forum Komunikasi Pengacara 61 (FKP61 – an Association of Lawyers), KPHKEL Aceh Sumut, Lembaga Advokasi Petani Sumut (LAP), and Forum Komunikasi Petani Karo.
As a result, these organisations are under fire from politically strong opponents, who also form NGO’s to voice their counter arguments and discredit their opponents. The leader of a local NGO from Gayo Lues campaigning against forest destruction was kidnapped and was lucky to escape an attempted murder, and people working for LMU are frequently threatened by loggers.
International NGO’s like Conservation International-Indonesia, the Sumatran Orangutan Conservation Programme, the Sumatran Orangutan Society, the Orangutan Foundation, and the International Primate Protection League, have started to lobby against Ladia Galaska as well. Due to the tremendous power of local governments over the central government ministries, arising from regional autonomy and a coincidence of political interests in relation to the 2004 elections, a much greater coalition of international and local NGO’s is required.
9. Funding for Ladia Galaska
After lobbying by SKEPHI and the Leuser Management Unit, the World Bank issued a statement in 2002 that it would not support any road proposals that could potentially lead to destruction of the Leuser Ecosystem. Even so, the provincial government of Aceh has still been lobbying the central government to fund the road projects from the government’s state budget (APBN). Final approval to go ahead with the roads was given at a meeting attended by four ministers on 26th November 2002. The problem for the creditors is that the annual deficit in the state budget is funded by the creditor agencies grouped under the CGI (Consultative Group for Indonesia). The provincial government argues that under the special autonomy law, Aceh is due funds from its portion of the revenues from oil and gas, and so they can spend these funds on anything they like, and should not be subjected to foreign restrictions.
10. International donors’ group for reconstruction of Aceh
Japan, the United States of America, and the World Bank have initiated a meeting to support the peace agreement in Aceh. The meeting will be held in Tokyo on 3rd December 2002, before the scheduled signing of the peace deal on 9th December between the government and GAM. The purpose is to help produce a lasting settlement by agreeing a post-war financial assistance package for the reconstruction of Aceh. During the conflict, hundreds of public buildings were destroyed, including many schools. GAM was thought to responsible for many of these incidents to prevent them being used as base camps by security forces. Over 23 countries, probably including Britain, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, are expected to attend the meeting.
11. What is required to help save the Leuser Ecosystem from destruction
The Ladia Galaska road network will lead to the destruction of the Leuser Ecosystem, but it will not help solve Aceh’s problems, most of which relate to corruption, the separatist movement which is based in northern Aceh, north of the Ecosystem, and decades of lack of investment in Aceh. Historically, the Leuser Ecosystem has never been part of the ‘Aceh problem’, so constructing roads through it will only waste investment through corruption and ghost projects that do not give attention to the needs of the majority of the people of Aceh.
To prevent the destruction of the Ecosystem that will result from opening it up with road networks, and to prevent the current behaviour of local governments to fail to prevent illegal logging in the Ecosystem, requires:
(a) strong pressure to be put on all the donor agencies to make a commitment that they will not contribute to the destruction of Leuser by supporting infrastructure projects that are likely to lead to deforestation or other degradation of the Leuser Ecosystem;
(b) to ensure that the donor group on the rehabilitation of Aceh receives a prior commitment from the provincial government of Aceh and all related local regency governments, that they will not substitute any of their provincial or regency budget resources for projects that are likely to lead to degradation of the Leuser Ecosystem;
(c) that any donor commitment to Aceh is conditional on a prior commitment of the provincial government and all related local governments to strive to conserve the Leuser Ecosystem, including a commitment to eliminate all illegal logging.
Without clause (b) above, the local governments will just substitute their own funds, because they are already doing this just now. Without clause (c), they might not go ahead with the formal asphalt road proposals, but can still destroy Leuser through logging roads that have the same effect. For instance, despite commitments to the CGI by the national government over the last three years, 14 new logging roads were opened up inside the Mount Leuser National Park in South-east Aceh during 2002, mainly sponsored by corrupt local government officials using the argument of ‘land for the people’.
It is crucial that despite these problems, the donors do not take the easy option and use any pressure on them not to support the reconstruction of Aceh. To prevent this, NGO’s should:
(d) encourage the donors to support the rehabilitation of Aceh to help the people of Aceh who have been repressed and traumatised by civil conflict for decades; and
(e) encourage donors to ensure that local governments in Aceh that support sound environmental conservation, and have revised their spatial plans to help support the conservation of the environment, including the Leuser Ecosystem, are not penalised for doing so, but instead are given special support targeted to their needs for sustainable development.
Local governments frequently stress the need to find solutions to help districts that have (theoretically) most of their administrative area under formal protected forest cover (e.g., South-east Aceh, Gayo Lues, and South Aceh each have about 80-85% of their land area under protection forests). Their leaders use this reason to call for the opening up of protected forests for the ‘development of their people’. Donors need to consider how to support suitable developments for districts that have revised their spatial plans to support conservation of their forests, including incorporation of the Leuser Ecosystem boundaries in their spatial plans, as incentives for them to follow the laws on forest protection.
12. What you can do to help save the Leuser Ecosystem from destruction
To help stop this destruction of Leuser, you need to:
(a) write letters to any of the sponsors of the Tokyo meeting – Japan, USA, or the World Bank – or any of the other European donor country participants, either via their prime ministers / presidents or Ambassadors; and
(b) send this e-mail on to any other people or NGO’s you know who are concerned that their government might be implicitly involved in the destruction of Leuser demanding a declaration from the donor group for Aceh similar to those given in the previous section.
In addition to the donors, letters can be sent to Indonesian government officials. These are more effective if they stress that destruction of the life-support function of the Leuser Ecosystem resulting from road networks through forest areas leads to floods and droughts, loss of lives, destruction of infrastructure (houses, roads and bridges), and degradation of agricultural productivity, as has recently happened. Biodiversity arguments are countered by local government officials as evidence that the west only cares about monkeys and doesn’t care about the welfare of the people. Biodiversity arguments are important for western donor countries, but it is stronger to say they are wasting their investments building roads and bridges downstream in the mainstream development zones if deforestation upstream subsequently results in destruction of their investments.
Letters are more effective if they are short and polite. Any letters copied to Indonesian government officials should take account of the sensitivity of the humanitarian tragedy in Aceh, as well as the government’s limited means available due to its prolonged economic crisis and debt burden to creditors. Indonesian foreign debt amounted to over US $74 billion at June 2002, while its domestic debt was some US $73 billion. Indonesia’s foreign debt repayments for 2002 amounted to US $8.3 billion, which is far more than the country is able to allocate for development spending, including poverty alleviation programmes.
13. List of addresses
a) American Embassy – use your local embassy address, or
United States Embassy Jakarta, Jalan Medan Merdeka No. 5, Jakarta 10110, Indonesia (Fax No. +62-21-34359911)
b) USAID, Indonesia: US Agency for International Development, Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan No 3, Jakarta 10110, Indonesia (Fax No. +62-21-34359926)
c) Japanese Embassy – use your local embassy address
d) World Bank, Indonesia: World Bank Office, Jakarta Stock Exchange Building, Tower 2, 12th Floor, Jalan Jenderal Sudirman Kav. 52-53, Jakarta 12190, Indonesia (Fax No. +62-21-52993111)
e) World Bank, Washington: The World Bank, Natural Resource Management, Environment Department, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA (Fax No. +202-522-1142)
Anyone that wants to create more internal pressure can also send cc’s of their letter to any of the following addresses:
Her Excellency Megawati Soekarnoputri
President of the Republic of Indonesia
Istana Negara, Jl. Medan Merdeka Utara, Jakarta, Indonesia
Mr. Amien Rais
Peoples’ Assembly (MPR-RI)
Jl. Jendral Gatot Soebroto No.6, Senayan, Jakarta 10270, Indonesia
Mr. Akbar Tanjung
House of Representatives (DPR-RI)
Jl. Jend. Gatot Subroto No. 6, Senayan Jakarta
Minister of Settlements and Infrastructure
Jl. Pattimura 20, Kebayoran Baru, Jakarta, Indonesia
Mr. Nabiel Makarim
State Minister for the Environment
Gedung B. Kav. 24, Jl. D.I. Panjaitan, Jakarta, Indonesia
Mr. M. Prakosa
Minister of Forestry
Gedung Manggala Wanabakti Blok I, Lt. 4
Jl. Jend. Gatot Subroto, Senayan, Jakarta 10270, Indonesia
(vii) Mr. Kwik Kian Gie
Minister for National Planning and Development
Jl. Taman Suropati No. 2, Jakarta 10310, Indonesia
Fax: +62-21 -314 5374
(viii) Mr. Abdullah
Province of Nanggroe Aceh
Jl. Nyak Arief, Banda Aceh, Indonesia
Fax: + 62-651-51091